Subject Description: Physics I is an introductory course offered to third year high school students of the Regional Science High School which aims to equip them with the knowledge and skills they need in their daily lives and develop their scientific attitude to become functionally literate citizens . As such, the course covers topics on scientific inquiry; forces and motion; nature, conservation and transformation of energy; nature and properties of mechanical and electromagnetic waves; and, properties and behaviors of light and optics.
Textbook: 1. Hewitt, P. (1998). Conceptual Physics. USA: Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc.
2. Glencoe Physics Principles and Problems
References: 1. Navaza, D. and B. Valdes, (1999). Philippines: Phoenix Publishing House
2. Physics Principles and Problems ( ). USA: The McGrawHill Companies, Inc.
3. Santos, GN and J. Ocampo (2003). E-Physics with Laboratory Activities. Philippines:
Rex Bookstore.
4. Santos, GN and A. Danac (2006). i-Physics. Philippines : Rex Bookstore.

I. Scientific Inquiry

Standard: The student will demonstrate an understanding of how scientific inquiry and technological design, including mathematical analysis, can be used appropriately to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

1.1 Generate hypotheses on the basis of credible, accurate, and relevant sources of scientific information.
1.2 Use appropriate laboratory apparatuses, technology, and techniques safely and accurately when conducting a scientific investigation.
1.3 Use scientific instruments to record measurement data in appropriate metric units that reflect the precision and accuracy of each particular instrument.
1.4 Design a scientific investigation with appropriate methods of control to test a hypothesis (including independent and dependent variables), and evaluate the designs of sample investigations.
1.5 Organize and interpret the data from a controlled scientific investigation by using mathematics (including formulas and dimensional analysis), graphs, models, and/or technology.
1.6 Evaluate the results of a controlled scientific investigation in terms of whether they refute or verify the hypothesis.
1.7 Evaluate a technological design or product on the basis of designated criteria (including cost, time, and materials).
1.8 Compare the processes of scientific investigation and technological design.
1.9 Use appropriate safety procedures when conducting investigations.

II. The Interactions of Matter and Energy

Standard 2 : The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of forces and motion.

2.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object.
2.2 Use the formula v = d/t to solve problems related to average speed or velocity.
2.3 Explain how changes in velocity and time affect the acceleration of an object.
2.4 Use the formula a = (vf-vi)/t to determine the acceleration of an object.
2.5 Explain how acceleration due to gravity affects the velocity of an object as it falls.
2.6 Represent the linear motion of objects on distance-time graphs.
2.7 Explain the motion of objects on the basis of Newton’s three laws of motion: inertia; the relationship among force, mass, and acceleration; and action and reaction forces.
2.8 Use the formula F = ma to solve problems related to force.
2.9 Explain the relationship between mass and weight by using the formula FW = mag.
2.10 Explain how the gravitational force between two objects is affected by the mass of each object and the distance between them.

Standard 3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature, conservation, and transformation of energy.


3.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy, and thermal energy).
3.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.
3.3 Explain work in terms of the relationship among the force applied to an object, the displacement of the object, and the energy transferred to the object.
3.4 Use the formula W = Fd to solve problems related to work done on an object.
3.5 Explain how objects can acquire a static electric charge through friction, induction, and conduction.
3.6 Explain the relationships among voltage, resistance, and current in Ohm’s law.
3.7 Use the formula V = IR to solve problems related to electric circuits.
3.8 Represent an electric circuit by drawing a circuit diagram that includes the symbols for a resistor, switch, and voltage source.
3.9 Compare the functioning of simple series and parallel electrical circuits.
3.10 Compare alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) in terms of the production of electricity and the direction of current flow.
3.11 Explain the relationship of magnetism to the movement of electric charges in electromagnets, simple motors, and generators.
3.12 Compare how current, voltage, and resistance are measured in a series and in a parallel electric circuit and identify the appropriate units of measurement.
3.13 Analyze the relationships among voltage, resistance, and current in a complex circuit by using Ohm’s law to calculate voltage, resistance, and current at each resistor, any branch, and the overall circuit.
3.14 Carry out calculations for electric power and electric energy for circuits.
3.15 Summarize the function of electrical safety components (including fuses, surge protectors, and breakers).
3.16 Explain the effects of magnetic forces on the production of electrical currents and on current carrying wires and moving charges.
3.17 Predict the cost of operating an electrical device by determining the amount of electrical power and electrical energy in the circuit.

Standard 4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature and properties of mechanical and electromagnetic waves.


4.1 Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with matter (including transverse and longitudinal/compressional waves).
4.2 Compare the nature and properties of transverse and longitudinal/compressional mechanical waves.
4.3 Summarize characteristics of waves (including displacement, frequency, period, amplitude, wavelength, and velocity as well as the relationships among these characteristics).
4.4 Use the formulas v = f and v = d/t to solve problems related to the velocity of waves.
4.5 Summarize the characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum (including range of wavelengths, frequency, energy, and propagation without a medium).
4.6 Summarize reflection and interference of both sound and light waves and the refraction and diffraction of light waves.
4.7 Explain the Doppler effect conceptually in terms of the frequency of the waves and the pitch of the sound.
4.8 Analyze the relationships among the properties of waves (including energy, frequency, amplitude, wavelength, period, phase, and speed).
4.9 Compare the properties of electromagnetic and mechanical waves.
4.10 Analyze wave behaviors (including reflection, refraction, diffraction, and constructive and destructive interference).
4.11 Distinguish the different properties of waves across the range of the electromagnetic spectrum.
4.12 Illustrate the interaction of light waves with optical lenses and mirrors by using Snell’s law and ray diagrams.
4.13 Summarize the operation of lasers and compare them to incandescent light.
Standard 5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the properties and behaviors of light and optics.


5.1 Explain the particulate nature of light as evidenced in the photoelectric effect.
5.2 Use the inverse square law to determine the change in intensity of light with distance.
5.3 Illustrate the polarization of light.
5.4 Summarize the operation of fiber optics in terms of total internal reflection.
5.5 Summarize image formation in microscopes and telescopes (including reflecting and refracting).
5.6 Summarize the production of continuous, emission, or absorption spectra.
5.7 Compare color by transmission to color by reflection.
5.8 Compare color mixing in pigments to color mixing in light.
5.9 Illustrate the diffraction and interference of light.
5.10 Identify the parts of the eye and explain their function in image formation.